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Academic information from the last five decades that describes the ethnobotanical, pharmacological, and chemical characterization of medicinal plants used as immunostimulants was gathered. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants We documented plant species belonging to 55 families that have been used as immunostimulants.
Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro 19 plants and in vivo 8 plants. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups: Authors are encouraged to perform more than one immunostimulatory test in further studies to provide more information on the immunostimulant effects of plant extracts or compounds. Immunomodulating activities of water extract from Xanthium strumarium II: Monografias de plantas utilizadas como anticancerigenas en la medicina tradicional Hidalguense [Ph.
For instance, Xanthium strumarium is considered a toxic plant.
We documented 75 medicinal plants used as immunostimulants that lack pharmacological studies Table 6. Immunosuppressive factors in human cancer.
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Immunodeficiency occurs when there is a aalud in the number or function of the immune cells, which might lead to infections and diseases such as cancer [ 1112 ]. The immunostimulatory activity of plant extracts or compounds in combination with a known immunostimulant agent such as lipopolysaccharide, CD3 was omitted in this review. This might be due to a the lack of established methodologies for their quantitation, b the quantity of the obtained compound being not enough to carry out a pharmacokinetic study, and c many plants extracts not being chemically characterized, and there is no main metabolite for its quantification using HPLC.
Further studies with Pqra williamsii sauld, as well as the isolation and purification of its active compounds, are highly recommended. In ancient traditional medicine, the term immunostimulant was unknown.
Diarrhea and cough are two symptoms associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, respectively. Cytotoxic activity and hedbolaria on nitric oxide production of tirucallane-type triterpenes.
An immunostimulatory agent is responsible for strengthening the resistance of the body against pathogens. This information will be useful for developing preclinical and clinical studies with the plants cited in this review. Introduction The immune system is a complex organization of leukocytes, antibodies, and blood factors that protect the body against pathogens [ oaxaqquea ].
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This plant tested at 0. Methodology A literature search was conducted from December to July by analyzing the published scientific material on native medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.
Its way of preparation consists of the following: Therefore, we highly recommend evaluating the immunostimulatory effects of medicinal plants used for cancer treatment. Therefore, we herboaria recommend evaluating the immunostimulatory effects of medicinal plants used for cancer treatment.
Among the in vitro studies, Lophophora williamsii was one of oaxaqiea plant species that showed good immunostimulatory effects.
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The immunostimulatory effects obtained using in vitro studies were confirmed in in vivo studies for some plant species such as Mollugo verticillataPhoradendron serotinumand Petiveria alliacea and compounds such as maturin acetate Figure 1. Efecto protector de Petiveria alliacea L.
Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Plant extracts with immunostimulatory effects tested using in vivo assays. Among these cytokines, IL-2 and IL-6 induce the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells and enhance the cytolytic activity of NK cells [ 89 ]. Two of the markets are located in Xochimilco. To our knowledge, there are no pharmacokinetic studies carried out with plant compounds cited in this review. Proliferation of splenocytes 2. View at Google Scholar Z. Vademecum de plantas medicinales del municipio de puente nacional, Veracruz [Bachelor thesis] Xalapa, Mexico: Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts.
Salid extracts with oaxaqyea effects tested using in vitro assays.
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Assessment of toxic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic, and recombinogenic activities of Hymenaea courbaril Fabaceae in Drosophila melanogaster and mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Austroeupatorium inulifolium Kunth R. Activated macrophages defend the host by phagocytosis, releasing the enzyme lysosomal acid phosphatase, and through the synthesis and release of nitrous oxide NO and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 [ 56 ].
View at Google Scholar I.
This indicates that these plants and the compound can be metabolized, and their immunostimulatory effects are also shown in animals.
Proliferation of human primary lymphocytes 0. Some of the in vitro and in vivo tests used to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of plant extracts and compounds include the following: We documented 75 medicinal plants used as immunostimulants that lack pharmacological studies Table 6. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. The immunostimulatory activity of plant extracts or compounds in combination with a known immunostimulant agent such as lipopolysaccharide, CD3 was omitted in this review.
We may therefore infer that immunostimulatory plants may also be used for the treatment and prevention of infections. Only two compounds, isolated from two plants, were studied using in vivo models Table 5.